After surviving outside for decades, one Revere character dies when taken inside for help

December 30, 2009
By

In Revere, there are regular people you get to know – your friends and neighbors, co-workers and acquaintances – and then there are the characters in the city that no one really knows but everyone knows of.

One of those characters – Roger DiPesa, a long-time local homeless man who suffered from mental illness – passed away on Christmas Eve at a hospital in Salem after some possible mysterious circumstances took place in a Salem homeless shelter.

Some are saying he was assaulted and died as a result of that.

Others are saying he just died simply due to medical complications.

It is, however, more than ironic that for decades he survived outside in the harsh Revere winters, yet met his death when pushed into a warm, so-called safe haven for homeless people.

DiPesa, 54, was a hard-core survivor and Revere Police – as well as many other Revere people – had an affinity for the man, who suffered mightily from mental illness. One could often spot DiPesa hugging a cup of Dunkin’ Donuts coffee as he trekked down Squire Road or American Legion Highway in the dog days of summer or the dead of winter.

He collected rocks.

He looked like Charles Manson, or modern likenesses of Jesus Christ.

He smoked inside restaurants where it wasn’t allowed.

Sometimes he attempted to sleep on the floor of Dunkin’ Donuts.

He carried on intelligent conversations from time to time.

He was very content to be living outside.

And he relied in great deal on the soft-heartedness of the Revere community, which did help him out time and time again.

One Revere Police Officer, Joe Rizzuti, has submitted a rare letter to the Journal in remembrance of DiPesa.

“Roger had his moments over the years,” read the letter. “Some of those moments made you smile and some made you scratch your head. However, you always knew Roger meant no harm. When I became a police officer I would often have to move Roger on from place to place. I always gave him a few bucks. He always thanked me and bought coffee or food with the money, never drugs or booze…”

Revere Police Capt. Michael Murphy said that the police have had 190 calls involving DiPesa since 1995 and a few arrests. None of those arrests were for anything serious in nature, he said.

“He is one of our characters in the city, no doubt,” said Murphy. “Roger DiPesa was the subject of 25 years worth of a multitude of police calls. Even though he had an alarming appearance to some or to strangers, our experience was he was a non-violent person. He had a Jesus Christ look to him. He was no doubt the victim of mental illness and was resistant to help from the system.”

Police Chief Terence Reardon also indicated that despite his weathered appearance, DiPesa was harmless and determined to live under the stars and not under a roof.

“Clearly he was mentally ill and he had his issues and could be cantankerous, but by and large he was harmless,” said the chief. “Because of his mental illness, he would have nothing to do with confinement of any kind. He wanted to live in the wild. When things did get too crazy weather-wise – when it was life threatening – we always tracked him down and brought him in. He didn’t usually come willingly though.”

It was a true mystery as to just how he found his way to surviving, and even the chief said DiPesa was a pretty tough individual and clearly very adaptable.

Those who have been in Revere know that DiPesa came from the Revere Street area and may still have family near St. Anthony’s.

However, just how he got to be the character known to many in Revere as “J.C.” or “Manson,” is yet another mystery about the man.

There were many stories as to how he got where he was – including some portraying him as a genius that had a mental break down.

Finding those answers or delving in to try and get them from him was a fruitless pursuit. There just weren’t answers he could provide, and if there were, maybe it was best not to know.

“I have a strong suspicion he was just a regular guy afflicted by mental illness,” said Capt. Murphy.

In the end, those who had interactions with DiPesa can look back and enjoy the irony and humor of some of his antics. Here was a man totally outside the system, living unbound by the anxieties and constraints that the rest of us pile up in a lifetime of responsibilities and orderliness.

I recall one time eating at the Wendy’s on Squire Road.

I sat in the front, and DiPesa came up and sat at the booth across the aisle from me.

We were the only ones in the restaurant at the time.

As I ate, he fidgeted, and looked at me from time to time.

Then, he cleared his throat and nodded to me.

I waited to see what would happen next.

He nodded and winked and then took out a pack of cigarettes. He took one out and lit it up, blowing the smoke high into the air with all his might. He looked at me and, again, nodded as if he and I were in on some sort of secret that was about to become public.

As the cigarette was about half burnt, the manager of the restaurant came over to us and told DiPesa that he couldn’t smoke and if he didn’t stop smoking, she would call the police.

DiPesa didn’t immediately react to the woman.

She stood waiting to see what he would do.

I sat across the aisle, also in anticipation.

He took what was left of the cigarette, contemplated, and then threw it in his mouth. A second or two passed and then he swallowed it.

I laughed.

The manager walked away shaking her head.

DiPesa nodded my way, got up from the table and left the restaurant.

  • Jose A.

    I wished someone would have taken Roger to a shelter home years ago & maybe there he would be much better & would’nt die at age 54. I really feel bad for hime & wished I could have done something for him. I sent my regards to him & may he rest in peace.

  • Jose A.

    I wished someone would have taken Roger to a shelter home years ago & maybe there he would be much better & would’nt die at age 54. I really feel bad for hime & wished I could have done something for him. I sent my regards to him & may he rest in peace.

  • gail

    roger i will miss you….rest in gods arms …gail revere ma

  • http://aol gail

    roger i will miss you….rest in gods arms …gail revere ma

  • Debbie Hartman

    Roger was a genius – all his classmates, including me expected him to find a cure for cancer or develop a machine that would change the world. He was brilliant, especially interested in electricity and electronics. His Dad was an electrician who lived across from St Anthony’s and next to Dr. Manconi. He had an older brother Frank and his paternal Grandmother. When we were in high school, Roger started to lose touch with reality. His Mother had suffered from mental illness also. He visited her in the institution she lived in, and he never returned the same person. It was a terrible shame that he did not have the help/medications he needed to live a balanced and productive life. Many of us tried to help him, but he needed more than we could give. Rest in peace old friend.

  • Debbie Hartman

    Roger was a genius – all his classmates, including me expected him to find a cure for cancer or develop a machine that would change the world. He was brilliant, especially interested in electricity and electronics. His Dad was an electrician who lived across from St Anthony’s and next to Dr. Manconi. He had an older brother Frank and his paternal Grandmother. When we were in high school, Roger started to lose touch with reality. His Mother had suffered from mental illness also. He visited her in the institution she lived in, and he never returned the same person. It was a terrible shame that he did not have the help/medications he needed to live a balanced and productive life. Many of us tried to help him, but he needed more than we could give. Rest in peace old friend.

  • maria folan

    TO THE FAMILY OF ROGER DiPESA,
    I WAS VERY SORRY TO HEAR ABOUT THE DEATH OF YOUR LOVED ONE.
    WE USE TO SEE ROGER ON 107 FREQUENTLY WHEN WE LIVED IN REVERE THE LAST TIME I BELIEVE WAS ABOUT 2 WEEKS AGO.I SAID TO MY COMPANION IT’S AMAZING HOW SOMEONE CAN LIVE FOR SO LONG ON THE OUTSIDE AND SURVIVE THIS LONG IN THESE TIMES.I DO HOPE THEY FIND OUT THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF HIS DEATH.HOPEFULLY IT WAS BY GODS HAND AND NOT SOMEONE ELSES.SO TO ROGER WHEREVER YOU MAYBE YOU WERE JUST WHAT THEY CALL YOU AN UPSTANDING “CHARACTER”
    PEACE WITH YOU.

  • http://aol maria folan

    TO THE FAMILY OF ROGER DiPESA,
    I WAS VERY SORRY TO HEAR ABOUT THE DEATH OF YOUR LOVED ONE.
    WE USE TO SEE ROGER ON 107 FREQUENTLY WHEN WE LIVED IN REVERE THE LAST TIME I BELIEVE WAS ABOUT 2 WEEKS AGO.I SAID TO MY COMPANION IT’S AMAZING HOW SOMEONE CAN LIVE FOR SO LONG ON THE OUTSIDE AND SURVIVE THIS LONG IN THESE TIMES.I DO HOPE THEY FIND OUT THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF HIS DEATH.HOPEFULLY IT WAS BY GODS HAND AND NOT SOMEONE ELSES.SO TO ROGER WHEREVER YOU MAYBE YOU WERE JUST WHAT THEY CALL YOU AN UPSTANDING “CHARACTER”
    PEACE WITH YOU.

  • Charles Molinari

    Lt. Joe Rizzuti’s letter perfectly expressed what most Revere-ites felt for Roger. His words resonated deep within my own heart with a beauty not often expressed through the police’s work. It’s good to know that Roger wasn’t treated as just some nuisance which, before reading the letter, is what I would have believed had I given it any serious thought. My own experiences with Roger never went past giving him a couple dollars whenever I happened past him on my way home from work or school, always thinking that I was doing my watching daughter more of a service than him. Having lived in Revere only a short time, I figured that since he was able to smoke Winston Brand cigarettes that he had to have some family or disability money supporting his life on the streets. Finding out that the community probably gave him most of his financial support makes me glad to have become a Revere resident myself.

  • Charles Molinari

    Lt. Joe Rizzuti’s letter perfectly expressed what most Revere-ites felt for Roger. His words resonated deep within my own heart with a beauty not often expressed through the police’s work. It’s good to know that Roger wasn’t treated as just some nuisance which, before reading the letter, is what I would have believed had I given it any serious thought. My own experiences with Roger never went past giving him a couple dollars whenever I happened past him on my way home from work or school, always thinking that I was doing my watching daughter more of a service than him. Having lived in Revere only a short time, I figured that since he was able to smoke Winston Brand cigarettes that he had to have some family or disability money supporting his life on the streets. Finding out that the community probably gave him most of his financial support makes me glad to have become a Revere resident myself.

  • meryl smith

    I knew the DiPesa family when I lived in Revere. Roger had been taken out of state at a young age by his mother along his brother Frank. His father gained custody of the two young boys and raised them with the help of the children’s fraternal grandmother. To the best of my knowledge there are no family members left today. So sad…

  • meryl smith

    I knew the DiPesa family when I lived in Revere. Roger had been taken out of state at a young age by his mother along his brother Frank. His father gained custody of the two young boys and raised them with the help of the children’s fraternal grandmother. To the best of my knowledge there are no family members left today. So sad…

  • Jill Hartman

    I remember Roger before his change in behavior. I remember him as a very intelligent, brilliant person, who had a crush on my sister. The story goes that he took some drugs and had such a bad trip that he never came back. Roger would be tickled to learn he made the front page of his hometown paper, The Revere Journal. Rest in peace, Roger.

  • Jill Hartman

    I remember Roger before his change in behavior. I remember him as a very intelligent, brilliant person, who had a crush on my sister. The story goes that he took some drugs and had such a bad trip that he never came back. Roger would be tickled to learn he made the front page of his hometown paper, The Revere Journal. Rest in peace, Roger.

  • Joanna

    It hurts me to hear the death of Roger.From time to time I’d see him at DDs and I would smile.Roger never wanted to hurt anyone.I’m amazed to see how long he survived outside in the cold. R.I.P. Roger :-(

  • Joanna

    It hurts me to hear the death of Roger.From time to time I’d see him at DDs and I would smile.Roger never wanted to hurt anyone.I’m amazed to see how long he survived outside in the cold. R.I.P. Roger :-(

  • susan

    To pass away on christmas eve has to be special occassion. this man was someone special in Revere. He may have looked homeless. but he was home in his heart…what a shame. what troubles me is that is there an ongoing investigation or is the book shut because he was homeless. To all the people of revere who gave this man money, cigaretts, food, or just there time, happy new year

    szlocigno

  • http://reverejournal susan

    To pass away on christmas eve has to be special occassion. this man was someone special in Revere. He may have looked homeless. but he was home in his heart…what a shame. what troubles me is that is there an ongoing investigation or is the book shut because he was homeless. To all the people of revere who gave this man money, cigaretts, food, or just there time, happy new year

    szlocigno

  • DAC

    REST IN PEACE

  • DAC

    REST IN PEACE

  • clark heighton

    i am bothered to hear this as i too have had many convo’s with roger.i also know the story of his girlfriend getting killed as a result from him.it is my understanding he never got over it and went crazy because of it.i will miss you roger.

  • clark heighton

    i am bothered to hear this as i too have had many convo’s with roger.i also know the story of his girlfriend getting killed as a result from him.it is my understanding he never got over it and went crazy because of it.i will miss you roger.

  • karen

    I am sorry to hear of Roger’s passing. I am also distrubed by the remarks of the Revere police department; saying that he was harmless. Back in the early 90’s I was a victim of a violent crime committed by Roger and that has lefted me with an ugly scar on my body and in my mind. I am glad to here that he hasn’t hurt anyone since.

  • karen

    I am sorry to hear of Roger’s passing. I am also distrubed by the remarks of the Revere police department; saying that he was harmless. Back in the early 90’s I was a victim of a violent crime committed by Roger and that has lefted me with an ugly scar on my body and in my mind. I am glad to here that he hasn’t hurt anyone since.

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It’s sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Keith Sugarman

    My name is Keith , I would say I was Rogers best friend . I know alot about him .I would help him out if I would see him .He was always looking for a place to live .He respected me and I respected him . He was hurting very badly inside and looked at everyone as they are evil .I could undrstand what he was saying when he got deep in thought . He was stubbon though . He looked at things in a negitive way . when I tryed to teach him about the way life really is , he would not listen. He had a mental block as his parents did that to him . It's sad . Now he is in peace . I hugged him before as I felt bad for him and love him and I will miss him .He ment know harm to anyone . He only wanted to have fun do electronics and music .

  • Midnightnightsclice14

    however wrote this sounds like your rogers lover

  • Midnightslice14

    i remember when Roger used to take big shits right outside of the wonderland byscycle racks

  • Midnightslice14

    And how he used to scream at little kids and sounded like he spoke jebrish and his fedish for rocks

  • Midnightslice14

    I sound like im being a real bitch do thus dead guy but heres another creepy story i remember when my little sister went to duckin donuts with me she got up real hard out of her chair and he shoved into her and stood up and said woa i know tiekwondoe!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  • Midnightslice14

    ttyl ni**ers

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